Let’s see how you did! If you didn’t get a few of these, don’t let it stress you out – it just means you need to play with more experiments in this area. We’re all works in progress, and we have our entire lifetime to puzzle together the mysteries of the universe!
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1. What is a diet? The sum of the food and drink consumed considered in terms of its effect on health
2. Why does our body need nutrients? Because it needs energy, it needs to grow/repair itself, and it needs to maintain the systems that maintain homeostasis.
3. What are the six essential nutrients? Describe them in your own words. Protein, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, water.
4. What model of a proper diet do we currently use; MyPlate or MyPyramid? MyPlate.
5. What are the three general pieces of advice the USDA gives in regards to maintaining a healthy diet? Balance calories intake, eat certain [nutrient rich] foods, eat fatty and sugary foods in moderation.
6. Does the protein food group, according to the USDA, include only meat? No it also includes vegetables, fish, eggs, and poultry.
7. Is 30% lean meat the type of meat you should buy often? Why or why not? No, because it has far too much fat. You should look for 94% lean meat.
8. What is the difference between “enriched” grains and “non- enriched” grains? Enriched grains contain vitamins and minerals we need that are lost in the refining process.
9. Do “enriched” refined grains contain fiber? No, fiber is not added back to enriched refined grains.
10. Who should avoid dairy products? People who cannot digest lactose—people who are lactose intolerant.
11. If you eat a healthy, balanced diet, is it necessary to get weekly exercise? If so, how much? Yes, exercise is always necessary. 60 minutes of exercise three days a week is a good level of activity.
12. What is the difference between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion? Mechanical digestion is accomplished with the teeth, which chemical digestion breaks food down into the nutrients via chemicals and enzymes (catalysts).
13. What are the two steps after digestion? Absorption and elimination.
14. Name two key enzymes used for digestion. Amylase, pepsin, or pancreatic lipase.
15. What is peristalsis? Peristalsis is the wave-like movement of the digestive system used to move food from the mouth to anus.
16. Is protein chemically digested in the mouth? If not there, where? No, protein is digested by pepsin in the stomach.
17. What are the three parts of the small intestine? What are their functions? The duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. In the duodenum the food from the stomach is further digested (chemically). Some of the chemicals are secreted from the duodenum itself, others are secreted from the liver and pancreas.The jejunum; Most nutrients are absorbed into the body at this second part of the small intestine. The nutrients are absorbed through tiny blood vessels. The ileum Here nutrients are also absorbed into the blood stream. What is not absorbed in the ileum is passed as waste through the large intestine.
18. What is the main function of the large intestine? Eliminate solid waste from the body.